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Englisch-Deutsch-Übersetzungen für minstrel im Online-Wörterbuch helden.nu ( Deutschwörterbuch). Lernen Sie die Übersetzung für 'minstrels' in LEOs Englisch ⇔ Deutsch Wörterbuch. Mit Flexionstabellen der verschiedenen Fälle und Zeiten ✓ Aussprache und. Übersetzungen für minstrel im Englisch» Deutsch-Wörterbuch von PONS Online: minstrel, minstrel show.

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A minstrel was a medieval European entertainer. Originally describing any type of entertainer such as a musician , juggler , acrobat , singer or fool , the term later, from the sixteenth century, came to mean a specialist entertainer who sang songs and played musical instruments.

Minstrels performed songs which told stories of distant places or of existing or imaginary historical events. Although minstrels created their own tales, often they would memorize and embellish the works of others.

As the courts became more sophisticated, minstrels were eventually replaced at court by the troubadours , and many became wandering minstrels, performing in the streets; a decline in their popularity began in the late 15th century.

Minstrels fed into later traditions of travelling entertainers, which continued to be moderately strong into the early 20th century, and which has some continuity in the form of today's buskers or street musicians.

Initially, minstrels were simply treats at court, and entertained the lord and courtiers with chansons de geste or their local equivalent.

In Anglo-Saxon England before the Norman Conquest , the professional poet was known as a scop "shaper" or "maker" , who composed his own poems, and sang them to the accompaniment of a harp.

In a rank much beneath the scop were the gleemen , who had no settled abode, but roamed about from place to place, earning what they could from their performances.

Late in the 13th century, the term minstrel began to be used to designate a performer who amused his lord with music and song. Following a series of invasions, wars, conquests, etc.

Poets like Chaucer and John Gower appeared in one category, wherein music was not a part. Du kannst trotzdem eine neue Übersetzung vorschlagen, wenn du dich einloggst und andere Vorschläge im Contribute-Bereich überprüfst.

Pro Review kannst du dort einen neuen Wörterbuch-Eintrag eingeben bis zu einem Limit von unverifizierten Einträgen pro Benutzer.

Links auf dieses Wörterbuch oder einzelne Übersetzungen sind herzlich willkommen! Der Würger von der Cater Street. F film The House on Carroll Street.

Das Haus in der Carroll Street. The House on Maple Street. The message was clear: Minstrelsy's reaction to Uncle Tom's Cabin is indicative of plantation content at the time.

Tom acts largely came to replace other plantation narratives, particularly in the third act. These sketches sometimes supported Stowe's novel, but just as often they turned it on its head or attacked the author.

Whatever the intended message, it was usually lost in the joyous, slapstick atmosphere of the piece. Characters such as Simon Legree sometimes disappeared, and the title was frequently changed to something more cheerful like "Happy Uncle Tom" or "Uncle Dad's Cabin".

Uncle Tom himself was frequently portrayed as a harmless bootlicker to be ridiculed. Troupes known as Tommer companies specialized in such burlesques, and theatrical Tom shows integrated elements of the minstrel show and competed with it for a time.

Minstrelsy's racism and sexism could be rather vicious. There were comic songs in which blacks were "roasted, fished for, smoked like tobacco, peeled like potatoes, planted in the soil, or dried up and hung as advertisements", and there were multiple songs in which a black man accidentally put out a black woman's eyes.

Non-race-related humor came from lampoons of other subjects, including aristocratic whites such as politicians, doctors, and lawyers.

Women's rights was another serious subject that appeared with some regularity in antebellum minstrelsy, almost always to ridicule the notion.

The women's rights lecture became common in stump speeches. When one character joked, "Jim, I tink de ladies oughter vote", another replied, "No, Mr.

Johnson, ladies am supposed to care berry little about polytick, and yet de majority ob em am strongly tached to parties. Performers told nonsense riddles: With the advent of the American Civil War , minstrels remained mostly neutral and satirized both sides.

However, as the war reached Northern soil, troupes turned their loyalties to the Union. Sad songs and sketches came to dominate in reflection of the mood of a bereaved nation.

Troupes performed skits about dying soldiers and their weeping widows, and about mourning white mothers.

Social commentary grew increasingly important to the show. Performers criticized Northern society and those they felt responsible for the breakup of the country, who opposed reunification, or who profited from a nation at war.

Emancipation was either opposed through happy plantation material or mildy supported with pieces that depicted slavery in a negative light.

Eventually, direct criticism of the South became more biting. Minstrelsy lost popularity during the war.

New entertainments such as variety shows , musical comedies and vaudeville appeared in the North, backed by master promoters like P.

Barnum who wooed audiences away. Blackface troupes responded by traveling farther and farther afield, with their primary base now in the South and Midwest.

Those minstrels who stayed in New York and similar cities followed Barnum's lead by advertising relentlessly and emphasizing the spectacle of minstrelsy.

Troupes ballooned; as many as 19 performers could be on stage at once, and J. Haverly 's United Mastodon Minstrels had over members.

This new minstrelsy maintained an emphasis on refined music. Most troupes added jubilees, or spirituals , to their repertoire in the s.

These were fairly authentic religious slave songs borrowed from traveling black singing groups. Other troupes drifted further from minstrelsy's roots.

When George Primrose and Billy West broke with Haverly's Mastodons in , they did away with blackface for all but the endmen and dressed themselves in lavish finery and powdered wigs.

They decorated the stage with elaborate backdrops and performed no slapstick whatsoever. Their brand of minstrelsy differed from other entertainments only in name.

Social commentary continued to dominate most performances, with plantation material constituting only a small part of the repertoire.

This effect was amplified as minstrelsy featuring black performers took off in its own right and stressed its connection to the old plantations.

The main target of criticism was the moral decay of the urbanized North. Cities were painted as corrupt, as homes to unjust poverty, and as dens of " city slickers " who lay in wait to prey upon new arrivals.

Minstrels stressed traditional family life; stories told of reunification between mothers and sons thought dead in the war. Women's rights, disrespectful children, low church attendance, and sexual promiscuity became symptoms of decline in family values and of moral decay.

Of course, Northern black characters carried these vices even further. By the s, minstrelsy formed only a small part of American entertainment, and by a mere three troupes dominated the scene.

Small companies and amateurs carried the traditional minstrel show into the 20th century, now with an audience mostly in the rural South, while black-owned troupes continued traveling to more outlying areas like the West.

These black troupes were one of minstrelsy's last bastions, as more white actors moved into vaudeville. One commentator described a mostly uncorked black troupe as "mulattoes of a medium shade except two, who were light.

The end men were each rendered thoroughly black by burnt cork. These black companies often featured female minstrels. One or two African-American troupes dominated the scene for much of the late s and s.

The first of these was Brooker and Clayton's Georgia Minstrels , who played the Northeast around Sam Hague 's Slave Troupe of Georgia Minstrels formed shortly thereafter and toured England to great success beginning in They became the most popular black troupe in America, and the words Callender and Georgia came to be synonymous with the institution of black minstrelsy.

Haverly in turn purchased Callender's troupe in and applied his strategy of enlarging troupe size and embellishing sets.

Their success was such that the Frohmans bought Haverly's group and merged it with theirs, creating a virtual monopoly on the market. The company split in three to better canvas the nation and dominated black minstrelsy throughout the s.

Racism made black minstrelsy a difficult profession. When playing Southern towns, performers had to stay in character off stage, dressed in ragged "slave clothes" and perpetually smiling.

Troupes left town quickly after each performance, and some had so much trouble securing lodging that they hired whole trains or had custom sleeping cars built, complete with hidden compartments to hide in should things turn ugly.

Their salaries, though higher than those of most blacks of the period, failed to reach levels earned by white performers; even superstars like Kersands earned slightly less than featured white minstrels.

In content, early black minstrelsy differed little from its white counterpart. As the white troupes drifted from plantation subjects in the mids however, black troupes placed a new emphasis on it.

The addition of jubilee singing gave black minstrelsy a popularity boost as the black troupes were rightly believed to be the most authentic performers of such material.

Although black minstrelsy lent credence to racist ideals of blackness, many African-American minstrels worked to subtly alter these stereotypes and to poke fun at white society.

One jubilee described heaven as a place "where de white folks must let the darkeys be" and they could not be "bought and sold".

African Americans formed a large part of the black minstrels' audience, especially for smaller troupes. In fact, their numbers were so great that many theater owners had to relax rules relegating black patrons to certain areas.

Chappelle capitalized on this and created the first totally black-owned black vaudeville show, The Rabbit's Foot Company , performed with an all-black cast that elevated the level of shows with sophisticated and fun comedy.

It successfully toured mainly the southwest and southeast, as well as in New Jersey and New York City. Previously, Black women were often cast as the figure of Jezebel, an oversexualized image of black womanhood reinforced by the objectification of early slave owners who raped their slaves.

Because of this image, minstrel shows that included women were more like burlesque shows with dancing, singing, and comedy which excited men and exploited African American women for entertainment.

Other minstrel troupes tried to satisfy outlying tastes. Female acts had made a stir in variety shows, and Madame Rentz's Female Minstrels ran with the idea, first performing in in skimpy costumes and tights.

Their success gave rise to at least 11 all-female troupes by , one of which did away with blackface altogether. Ultimately, the girlie show emerged as a form in its own right.

Mainstream minstrelsy continued to emphasize its propriety, but traditional troupes adopted some of these elements in the guise of the female impersonator.

A well-played wench character became critical to success in the postwar period. Female characters ranged from the sexually provocative to the laughable.

These roles were almost always played by men in drag most famously George Christy, Francis Leon and Barney Williams , even though American theater outside minstrelsy was filled with actresses at this time.

Mammy or the old auntie was the old darky's counterpart. She often went by the name of Aunt Dinah Roh after the song of that title.

Mammy was lovable to both blacks and whites, matronly, but hearkening to European peasant woman sensibilities. Her main role was to be the devoted mother figure in scenarios about the perfect plantation family.

Minstrel show performers Rollin Howard in wench costume and George Griffin, c. Her beauty and flirtatiousness made her a common target for male characters, although she usually proved capricious and elusive.

After the Civil War, the wench emerged as the most important specialist role in the minstrel troupe; men could alternately be titillated and disgusted, while women could admire the illusion and high fashion.

Actress Olive Logan commented that some actors were "marvelously well fitted by nature for it, having well-defined soprano voices, plump shoulders, beardless faces, and tiny hands and feet.

In contrast was the funny old gal, a slapstick role played by a large man in motley clothing and large, flapping shoes.

The humor she invoked often turned on the male characters' desire for a woman whom the audience would perceive as unattractive.

Over time, the presence of black women in these shows ushered in a new platform to showcase their talent and tell their own stories of struggle, success, relationships, and womanhood.

Women, such as Ma Rainey, who got her start singing and performing as the "coon shouter" with the Rabbit Foot Minstrels is recognized as one of the innovators of the "Blues" sound.

Rainey's songs spoke to the often difficult experience of black women in the South. These songs were [83] "filled with emotion and the sad, hard truths about life".

Rainey's raw talent for singing the Blues landed her a record deal in with Paramount Records. With her success as a performer and businesswoman she is named "The Mother of Blues.

Ma Rainey was one of the first successful Black women to emerge from Minstrel shows, but the recording of "Crazy Blues" by Bessie Smith created a huge audience and following and [84] "essentially created an industry for blues songs recorded by women.

With her success and super stardom she is named "The Empress of Blues. The Christy Minstrels established the basic structure of the minstrel show in the s.

During the first, the entire troupe danced onto stage singing a popular song. Various stock characters always took the same positions: The interlocutor acted as a master of ceremonies and as a dignified, if pompous, straight man.

He had a somewhat aristocratic demeanor, a "codfish aristocrat", [88] while the endmen exchanged jokes and performed a variety of humorous songs.

One minstrel, usually a tenor , came to specialize in this part; such singers often became celebrities, especially with women.

The second portion of the show, called the olio , was historically the last to evolve, as its real purpose was to allow for the setting of the stage for act three behind the curtain.

It had more of a variety show structure. Performers danced, played instruments, did acrobatics, and demonstrated other amusing talents.

Troupes offered parodies of European-style entertainments, and European troupes themselves sometimes performed. The highlight was when one actor, typically one of the endmen, delivered a faux-black-dialect stump speech , a long oration about anything from nonsense to science, society, or politics, during which the dim-witted character tried to speak eloquently, only to deliver countless malapropisms, jokes, and unintentional puns.

All the while, the speaker moved about like a clown, standing on his head and almost always falling off his stump at some point. With blackface makeup serving as fool's mask, these stump speakers could deliver biting social criticism without offending the audience, [92] although the focus was usually on sending up unpopular issues and making fun of blacks' ability to make sense of them.

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Minstrel Deutsch Video

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